What in Statistics?
Statistics is a branch of mathematics which involves data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data. It is used in all fields including research, social sciences and climate research.
The two main methods used in data analysis are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
- Descriptive Statistics –
Is a method of data analysis that summarizes data from a sample using indexes like mean or standard deviation?
- Inferential Statistics –
It is used to draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation.
Before going ahead with the applications that statistics has, we should try to understand the various methods used in data collection and how it can impact our daily lives.
Sampling is an important part of data collection. Samples must be chosen with great care. It may not be possible to collect whole samples all the time. So, we have to work with localized samples.
Then there is also the probability theory. Sampling is actually a part of the probability theory.
In statistical research, there is a common goal and that is to investigate the causes and occurrences.
Theories of Statistics
There are various definitions and theories that have to be studied in Statistics. Different types of hypothesis like Null hypothesis and Alternate hypothesis are an important part of the study here. It is used to ascertain the relationships between the different variables.
So, looking at the practical aspects of studying statistics, let us see how we can help our fellow students in achieving the best scores.
- You need to inculcate the habit of studying statistics on a daily basis. Set aside a few hours each day for studying and do not try to cram everything in one day.
- Group study is an important part of studying statistics. Verbal exchange of ideas and skills can only happen in a group atmosphere.
- Do not try to memorize the formulae. That way you can never reach your goal. If you just memorize without understanding, the end result will be such that you need to look up into the books.
- Try to work on a variety of problems. You have to read other books as well.
- If you are scared of mathematics, attend counselling problems to avert your fear.
Three-most Important Statistical Measures
- Mean is the mathematical average. It is the sum of the total number of items divided by the number.
- Median is the middle value, when a set of data are arranged from least to greatest.
- Mode is the value that occurs the most number of times in a set of data.
Statistics in Our Daily Life
The application of statistics in our daily life is varied. They are used everywhere, from government agencies, science and medicine field, psychology, education and education to MNCs.
- Government –
The government use statistical data to tale decisions regarding populations, health and education and subsequent budgeting on the same. It may research on data collected from several schools to check out if all the protocols are being followed or not.
- Science and Medicine –
Research work of the effects of medicines are carried out from samples taken randomly. It helps to know which medicines are working well, from random samples. Taking whole population figures is not always possible. Doctors make forecasts based on statistical concepts. When you take a random population, you study the causes and effects of ceratin diseases.
- Psychology Field –
Data on human behaviour is collected from the population, through statistical measure like random sampling and localized sampling techniques. We will further elaborate on that, as we go along.
- Education –
Teachers are also using the same evaluation methods in the classroom. They try to figure out, which method of pedagogy works and which does not. They also require to find out, regarding the performance of the students in the classroom.
- MNCs –
The big shots, have their own statistics department or firms, to research on issues related to products, the staff and customer service. The successful businesses run on the assumptions and forecasting methods.
- Weather Forecasting –
Ever wondered how weather forecasting is done? In weather offices, certain computer systems are there, which are built on statistical models. These models compare the past weather with the current weather and try to find the next assumption.
- Now, what about Insurance. Everybody does insurance these days. So, do you think everyone just buys insurance and these insurance companies are fools to assure such large and hefty sums of money, without a backup plan B. certain insurance companies use statistical models to calculate the risk of giving insurance?
- Political Scenario –
You must have noticed, how election predictions are made. Even before the actual results are out, we can see predictions afloat in the air. How is it possible? Through statistics of course. It’s no guessing all the time.
There are other numerous fields, where statistics is applied on a daily basis.
You must have heard of the very successful International Year of Statistics, celebrated in 2013. A huge network of organizations are committed to excellence in the field of statistics and spreading the means:
- Increasing public awareness about the effects of statistics in our day to day lives.
- Promoting statistics as a profession, for young people.
- Promotion of creativity in the field of statistics.
So, we can see the science has far-reaching effects on the society, however many people are still unaware of its repercussions. From the walks we undertake to the foods we eat, statistics is everywhere. Statistics is improving our lives on a daily basis. Without statistics, it is not easy to survive in today’s world. You and I, everyone is using statistics on a daily basis. We need to educate more, to spread the awareness about statistics.
Undergraduate Goals in Statistics
We all know what Statisticians do, right? They help in designing data collection procedures and plans, analyse the data and interpret the same. After which you draw conclusions. Under-graduate programs aim at preparing students with analytical and quantitative skills that they can build on.
The majors focus on learning tools and concepts that help in analysing real-time data. The topics mainly included are the fundamentals of probability, statistical reasoning, inferential methods, statistical computing and modelling. Description and interpretation of models is an important prerequisite.
Let us learn about the Statistics Syllabus
First and foremost, comes computation with data. This is more focussed on finding out the manner in which statistical data is analysed through computers. It includes methodologies to acquire and organize data. Findings and inferences are another important part of the statistical methodologies. Software’s are also taught, which helps in breaking down different algorithms. Students pick up basic skills in numeracy, simulation and graphics.
Concepts of Probability is another important feature of the statistics course. There is an introduction to probability. Those students who have studied calculus can easily pick up the nuances of this course. The course has contents like laws of probability, expectation and conditioning. Along, with that there are standard and discrete variables. Theorems, trials and sampling also plays a very important role.
Now, comes the descriptive part of statistics. Statistical reasoning, data analysis and development of written skills is an important part of the study here. Hypothesis testing and estimation form a major chunk of the concepts taught in statistics.
Probability for Data Science is another core module covered in your quest to master statistics. Random variables, discrete and continuous families are studied here. Dependence, Convergence, predictions are also part of the syllabus. Usage of numerical computation, graphics and computer algebra are also taught herein.
There are more electives to study as you move forward, up the ladder for a course in statistics. You will learn the following:
- Stochastic Processes are aimed at those students, who have a strong interest in probability theory.
- Linear Modelling – its theory and applications are for students with interests in social sciences, statistical models and data analysis. Linear regression, variance analysis, covariance, random effects and design and analysis are all important aspects of the program.
- Sampling surveys – This is for students who require a knowledge in social sciences, marketing, data collection methodologies.
- Time Series – yet another feather in the cap of statisticians, it is for the students who are inclined towards physics, communication and information theories. You will study the estimation of trends and forecasting.
- Next, come the contemporary methods of teaching.
- Game Theory is another division worth mentioning over here. It is recommended for students with an interest in mathematics, organization strategy and business dealings.
Those who pursue statistics as a career has many options, laid out in front of them in the long run. Some go into teaching, some into government jobs and some in to statistical research.
Today, we are going to see what impact, Statistics has on Psychological data collection and analysis.
The main purpose of this project work is to explore the relationship between old age and its relation to depression. The elderly population is large in general and growing due to advancement of health care education. These people are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity to live happily.
This study was carried out on 12 elderly people (both men and women). The tool used was Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed a significant relationship between depression and loneliness, depending upon the demographics and circumstances of the individual. Some of them had no depression whereas others had depression. The results ranged from normal to severe depression.
Studies globally, are in concordance with the findings from other countries which suggests that in medically ill geriatric patient’s depression is associated with higher level of disability, dysfunction, poor quality of life, and poor outcome. Accordingly, all elderly patients suffering from various physical illnesses must be screened for depression, and it must be treated adequately.
Pearson’s co-relation statistical test was done from the results obtained. Correlation is a technique for investigating the relationship between two quantitative, continuous variables, for example, age and depression index. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) is a measure of the strength of the association between the two variables.
The results state that, there is no direct relation between gender and depression.
We had visited an old age home and interviewed 6 males and 6 females. We had weighed various parameters like:
- Past Failure
- Guilty Feelings
- Punishment Feelings
- Loss of Interest
- Concerns about health
The scores of both males and females is almost the same. Except in some cases.
After finding out the results, we thereby come to the conclusion, that Old people suffer from depression because there are some factors causing depression such as lack of social support, divorce, alcoholism, smoking tobacco, unemployment, lack of physical activity and exercise, stress, financial difficulties, poverty, conflicts between old and new values and language barriers etc. Therefore, the prevalence of depression is increasing owing to above-mentioned reasons.
Thus we can say, that there is no direct relationship between old age and depression. Background of the individuals matter. Therefore, Null Hypothesis holds true in this case.
So, we can see the impact statistics has on the Psychological studies arena. Without it, the study of samples in our population with respect to certain factors, can never be found out. It has thus become an irreplaceable part of the studies. It is a genre, which has a high value impact on society as a whole.
Statistics is being embraced the world over, as an important subject of study. It is as important as the mathematical field with interests in various sub-domains and is very much an irreplaceable part of the society that we are in today. It is undergoing huge technological advancement as well for the better.
Nancie L Beckett is an experienced professional in the field of Statistics. She has a MBA Degree and almost 6 years of work experience. She has worked in colleges in the capacity of professor and also teaches students online. Having graduated from Harvard University, she is aware of all the latest development in the education sector.